Health insurance in the United States – Wikipedia
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Health insurance in the United States is any program that helps pay for medical expenses, whether through privately purchased insurance, social insurance, or a social welfare program funded by the government. Synonyms for this usage include “health coverage”, “health care coverage”, and “health benefits”. In a more technical sense, the term “health insurance” is used to describe any form of insurance providing protection against the costs of medical services. This usage includes both private insurance programs and social insurance programs such as Medicare, which pools resources and spreads the financial risk associated with major medical expenses across the entire population to protect everyone, as well as social welfare programs like Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program, which both provide assistance to people who cannot afford health coverage.
Health insurance in the United States overview
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Trends in private coverage
The proportion of non-elderly individuals with employer-sponsored cover fell from 66% in 2000 to 56% in 2010, then stabilized following the passage of the Affordable Care Act. Employees who worked part-time (less than 30 hours a week) were less likely to be offered coverage by their employer than were employees who worked full-time (21% vs. 72%).
A major trend in employer sponsored coverage has been increasing premiums, deductibles, and co-payments for medical services, and increasing the costs of using out-of-network health providers rather than in-network providers.
Trends in public coverage
Public insurance cover increased from 2000–2010 in part because of an aging population and an economic downturn in the latter part of the decade. Funding for Medicaid and CHIP expanded significantly under the 2010 health reform bill. The proportion of individuals covered by Medicaid increased from 10.5% in 2000 to 14.5% in 2010 and 20% in 2015. The proportion covered by Medicare increased from 13.5% in 2000 to 15.9% in 2010, then decreased to 14% in 2015.
Status of the uninsured
The uninsured proportion was stable at 14–15% from 1990 to 2008, then rose to a peak of 18% in Q3 2013 and rapidly fell to 11% in 2015. The proportion without insurance has stabilized at 9%.
A 2011 study found that there were 2.1 million hospital stays for uninsured patients, accounting for 4.4% ($17.1 billion) of total aggregate inpatient hospital costs in the United States.The costs of treating the uninsured must often be absorbed by providers as charity care, passed on to the insured via cost-shifting and higher health insurance premiums, or paid by taxpayers through higher taxes.
The social safety net
The social safety net refers to those providers that organize and deliver a significant level of health care and other needed services to the uninsured, Medicaid, and other vulnerable patients. This is important given that the uninsured rate for Americans is still high after the advent of the Affordable Care Act, with a rate of 10.9%, or 28.9 million people in 2019. Not only is this because the ACA does not address gaps for undocumented or homeless populations, but higher insurance premiums, political factors, failure to expand Medicaid in some states, and ineligibility for financial assistance for coverage are just some of the reasons that the social safety net is required for the uninsured. Most people who are uninsured are non-elderly adults in working families, low income families, and minorities. Social safety net hospitals primarily provide services to these populations of uninsured. For example, California’s Public Health Care Systems are only 6% of the hospitals in the state, yet provide care for 38% of all hospital care of uninsured in California- 123,000 of which are homeless, and 3.6 million of which live below the federal poverty line.
How U.S. Health Insurance Works
Health care in the United States can be very expensive. A single doctor’s office visit may cost several hundred dollars and an average three-day hospital stay can run tens of thousands of dollars (or even more) depending on the type of care provided. Most of us could not afford to pay such large sums if we get sick, especially since we don’t know when we might become ill or injured or how much care we might need. Health insurance offers a way to reduce such costs to more reasonable amounts.
The way it typically works is that the consumer (you) pays an up front premium to a health insurance company and that payment allows you to share “risk” with lots of other people (enrollees) who are making similar payments. Since most people are healthy most of the time, the premium dollars paid to the insurance company can be used to cover the expenses of the (relatively) small number of enrollees who get sick or are injured. Insurance companies, as you can imagine, have studied risk extensively, and their goal is to collect enough premium to cover medical costs of the enrollees. There are many, many different types of health insurance plans in the U.S. and many different rules and arrangements regarding care.
Following are three important questions you should ask when making a decision about the health insurance that will work best for you:
Key question #1: Where can I receive care?
One way that health insurance plans control their costs is to influence access to providers. Providers include physicians, hospitals, laboratories, pharmacies, and other entities. Many insurance companies contract with a specified network of providers that has agreed to supply services to plan enrollees at more favorable pricing.
If a provider is not in a plan’s network, the insurance company may not pay for the service(s) provided or may pay a smaller portion than it would for in-network care. This means the enrollee who goes outside of the network for care may be required to pay a much higher share of the cost. This is an important concept to understand, especially if you are not originally from the local Stanford area.
If you have a plan through a parent, for example, and that plan’s network is in your hometown, you may not be able to get the care you need in the Stanford area, or you may incur much higher costs to get that care.
Key question #2: What does the plan cover?
One of the things health care reform has done in the U.S. (under the Affordable Care Act) is to introduce more standardization to insurance plan benefits. Before such standardization, the benefits offered varied drastically from plan to plan. For example, some plans covered prescriptions, others did not. Now, plans in the U.S. are required to offer a number of “essential health benefits” which include
- Emergency services
- Laboratory tests
- Maternity and newborn care
- Mental health and substance-abuse treatment
- Outpatient care (doctors and other services you receive outside of a hospital)
- Pediatric services, including dental and vision care
- Prescription drugs
- Preventive services (e.g., some immunizations) and management of chronic diseases
- Rehabilitation services
Key question #3: How much will it cost?
Understanding what insurance coverage costs is actually quite complicated. In our overview, we talked about paying a premium to enroll in a plan. This is an up front cost that is transparent to you (i.e., you know how much you pay).
Unfortunately, for most plans, this is not the only cost associated with the care you receive. There is also typically cost when you access care. Such cost is captured as deductibles, coinsurance, and/or copays (see definitions below) and represents the share you pay out of your own pocket when you receive care. As a general rule of thumb, the more you pay in premium up front, the less you will pay when you access care. The less you pay in premium, the more you will pay when you access care.
The question for our students is, pay (a larger share) now or pay (a larger share) later?
Either way, you will pay the cost for care you receive. We have taken the approach that it is better to pay a larger share in the upfront premium to minimize, as much as possible, costs that are incurred at the time of service. The reason for our thinking is that we don’t want any barrier to care, such as a high copay at the time of service, to discourage students from getting care. We want students to access medical care whenever it’s needed.
Important Insurance Terms and Concepts:
- Out-of-pocket expenses:The terms “out-of-pocket cost” and/or “cost sharing” refer to the portion of your medical expenses you are responsible for paying when you actually receive health care. The monthly premium you pay for care is separate from these costs.
- Annual deductible: The annual deductible is amount you pay each plan year before the insurance company starts paying its share of the costs. If the deductible is $2,000, then you would responsible for paying the first $2,000 in health care you receive each year, after which the insurance company would start paying its share.
- Copayment (or ‘Copay’): The copay is a fixed, upfront amount you pay each time you receive care when that care is subject to a copay. For example, a copay of $30 might be applicable for a doctor visit, after which the insurance company picks up the rest. Plans with higher premiums generally have lower copays and vice versa. Plans that do not have copays typically use other methods of cost sharing.
- Coinsurance: Coinsurance is a percentage of the cost of your medical care. For an MRI that costs $1,000, you might pay 20 percent ($200). Your insurance company will pay the other 80 percent ($800). Plans with higher premiums typically have less coinsurance.
- Annual out-of-pocket maximum: The annual out-of-pocket maximum is the most cost-sharing you will be responsible for in a year. It is the total of your deductible, copays, and coinsurance (but does not include your premiums). Once you hit this limit, the insurance company will pick up 100 percent of your covered costs for the remainder of the plan year. Most enrollees never reach the out-of-pocket limit but it can happen if a lot of costly treatment for a serious accident or illness is needed. Plans with higher premiums generally have lower out-of-pocket limits.
- What is means to be a ‘Covered Benefit’:
US Health Insurance
Health Insurance in the United States for non-Citizens
The United States government does not provide health insurance for all its people, and health insurance is not obligatory for those living in the US. It is optional, but highly recommended and necessary since health services are very costly, more than in any other country anywhere across the globe.
There are two types of health insurances in the US, private and public. Most people use a combination of both. The US public health insurances are: Medicare, Medicaid, and Children’s Health Insurance Program.
Medicare is a national health insurance program that dates back to 1966. It provides health insurance for US nationals older than 65 years old, but also for younger people with end stage renal disease, ALS, and some other disabilities.
Data shows that in 2018, Medicare provided almost 60 million individuals with healthcare in the US, over 51 million of which were older than 65.
The Medicare program is divided into four parts:
- Part A – which covers hospitals, skilled nursing and hospice services.
- Part B – covers outpatient services, including some providers’ services while inpatient at a hospital, outpatient hospital charges
- Part C – is an alternative called Managed Medicare, which permits patients to select health plans with at least the same service coverage as Part A and B, often the benefits of Part D, and an annual out of pocket spend limit which A and B lack. To sign in this part, one must sign in Part A and B fist.
- Part D – covers mostly self-administered prescription drugs.
Medicaid is a federal and state program that helps people with limited income and resources to cover medical costs, while covering benefits normally not covered by Medicare, as nursing home care and personal care services.
It is the largest source of funding for medical and health-related services for people with low income in the United States. Data shows that the US provided health insurance to 71 million people with low income or disabilities, which is 23% of the total of the US’ population.
Children’s Health Insurance Program
Formerly known as the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), this is a program that covers with health insurance children of families with modest income, that are not low enough to qualify for Medicaid.
The Affordable Care Act – Obamacare
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a federal statute signed into law by President Obama, which made it mandatory for every citizen to have health insurance or be penalized. The Act subsidies for low-income families, by taxing healthcare providers and high-income families, as it was designed to lower health care costs while providing better health care for Americans.
The Affordable Care Act allowed parents to ad their children up to the age of 26 to their policies, in a bid to have younger healthy people paying premiums. It also allowed poorer people to get treatment for chronic illnesses instead of using the emergency room.
US Private Health Insurance
There are about a thousand private health insurance providers in the US, with each of them offering different plans with different prices, which largely depend on a person’s medical history. However, while there are individual plans, covering only one person, there are also group plans targeting families in particular.
Usually, there are three types of health insurances in the United States:
- Traditional fee-for-service health insurance plans which plans are usually the most expensive, that those with an income lower than the average income in the US, have difficulties to purchase. However, these are the best plans as they offer you most flexibility.
- Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) which offers a limited choice of healthcare providers, yet it also offers lower co-payments and covers the costs of more preventative care. They are evaluated and accredited by the National Committee for Quality Assurance.
- Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs) which just like HMOs offer lower co-payments, but they give you more flexibility when selecting a provider, as they give you a list of providers among which you can choose.
How to Choose a Good US Health Insurance Plan?
When looking up for a good health insurance plan make sure you ask questions like:
- Does that plan grant you with the right to go to any doctor, hospital, clinic or pharmacy you choose?
- Are specialists such as eye doctors and dentists covered?
- Does the plan cover special conditions or treatments such as pregnancy, psychiatric care and physical therapy?
- Does the plan cover home care or nursing home care and medications a physician might prescribe?
- What are the deductibles? Are there any co-payments?
- What is the most you will have to pay out of my own pocket to cover expenses?
Make sure you also understand how a dispute about a bill or service is handled by your provider, as in some plans, you may be required to have a third party decide how to settle the problem. We recommend the GeoBlue Xplorer plan for foreigners in the United States
Health Insurance Options for Illegal Immigrants
Illegal Immigrants in the US can get health coverage only from private providers, as the US government funded health insurance does not cover them.
Community centers can provide medical help to undocumented immigrants in the US, which is termed Safety Net Providers, if the healthcare seeker can participate in fee for service medical assistance.